What is Biofloc?

November 23, 2019

What is biofloc?

Biofloc is a heterogeneous aggregate of suspended particles and variety of microorganisms associated with extracellular polymeric substances.

It is composed of microorganisms such as bacteria algae fungi in vertebrates  and detritus.

Biofloc farming technology used in fish and shellfish culture with Limited or zero water exchange under high stocking density. The principle of this technique is the generation of nitrogen cycle by maintaining higher carbon: nitrogen ratio through stimulating heterotrophic microbial growth, which assimilate the nitrogenous waste that can be exploited why the culture species as a feed.


  • Eco-friendly culture system.
  • It reduces environmental impact.
  • Improves land and water use efficiency
  • Limited or zero water exchange
  • Higher productivity (It enhances survival rate, growth performance, feed conversion in the culture systems of fish).
  • Higher biosecurity.
  • Reduces water pollution and the risk of introduction and spread of pathogens
  • Cost-effective feed production.
  • It reduces utilization of protein rich feed and cost of standard feed.
  • It reduces the pressure on capture fisheries ie., use of cheaper food fish and trash fish for fish feed formulation.


  • Increased energy requirement for mixing and aeration
  • Reduced response time because water respiration rates are elevated
  • Start-up period required
  • Alkalinity supplementation required
  • Increased pollution potential from nitrate accumulation
  • Inconsistent and seasonal performance for sunlight-exposed systems

Various steps of this technique:

 1: Tank or pond set-up
2: Aeration
3: Pre-seeding beneficial microbes
 4: Species selection and stocking densities
5: Balancing carbon source input
6: Biofloc growth
7: Monitoring and control of biofloc development
8: Monitoring and control of water parameters and associated farm infrastructure
 9: Monitoring and control of farm stock
 10: Harvest and clean-up

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