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January 22, 2020



Coronavirus explained: What you need to know

The 2019–20 novel coronavirus outbreak 

also referred to as the Wuhan coronavirus, the China pneumonia outbreak or the Wuhan pneumonia started in mid-December 2019 in the metropolis of Wuhan in critical China, as an emerging cluster of human beings with pneumonia of unknown cause, linked more often than not to stallholders who worked on the Huanan Seafood Market, which also sold stay animals. Chinese scientists finally isolated a brand new coronavirus, targeted2019-nCoV, which has been located to be as a minimum 70% similar in gene collection to SARS-CoV.

The first suspected cases were said on 31 December 2019, with the first signs appearing just over 3 weeks earlier on eight December 2019. The market became closed off on 1 January 2020 and people with the signs and symptoms have been remoted. Over 700 people, including greater than four hundred healthcare employees, who got here into near touch with suspected cases were, to begin with monitored. With the improvement of a specific diagnostic PCR check for detecting the infection, the presence of 2019-nCoV became eventually confirmed in 41 people in the original Wuhan cluster, of which two have been later reported to be a married couple, one of whom had not been to the marketplace, and another three who have been members of the same circle of relatives that worked at the marketplace's seafood stalls. The outbreak resulted in preliminary deaths on nine January 2020 and 16 January 2020, both in men over 60, a 3rd on 19 January 2020, and three more on 21 January 2020.

The WHO had warned that a wider outbreak was possible, and there had been worries of further spreading during China's peak travel season around Chinese New Year. As of twenty-two January 2020, increased checking out has proven approximately 400 confirmed cases, including a few in healthcare people and some outside China. Nine deaths have passed off and there is proof of human-to-human spread. It has now not yet, however, shown to be of the identical severity or as lethal as SARS. Questions raised encompass whether or not the virus has been circulating for longer than formerly thought, whether Wuhan honestly is the center of the outbreak or truly the vicinity it turned into first diagnosed with ongoing surveillance and checking outand will there be an opportunity that Wuhan is a superspreader event. Whether the situation constitutes a public fitness emergency of global concern beneath the International Health Regulations can be mentioned on 22 January 2020 by means of an emergency committee arranged by way of the World Health Organization (WHO).



a brief overview of Coronavirus virus




2019–20 novel coronavirus outbreak:

Date- 12 December 2019 – present
Location Origin: China Wuhan, Hubei, China
Casualties
Cases as of 22 January 2020
Country or region Confirmed cases Death
China 440 9
Thailand                                  4 0
Japan                                      1 0
South Korea 1 0
Taiwan                                     1 0
The United                              1 0
Macau                                      1 0
Total 449 9


Overview: 

As the cluster of cases with "pneumonia of unknown cause" had centered around a wholesale animal and fish market, which had 1000 stalls selling chickens, cats, pheasants, bats, marmots, venomous snakes, spotted deer and the organs of rabbits and other wild animals, it led to the suspicion that the cause may be a novel Coronavirus from an animal source.

Coronaviruses mainly circulate among animals but have been known to evolve and infect humans, as has been seen with SARS, MERS and four other coronaviruses found in humans which cause mild respiratory symptoms like in the common cold. All six can spread from human-to-human. In 2002, with an origin in civet cats from live animal markets, an outbreak of SARS started in mainland China, and with the help of a few super-spreaders and international air travel, reached as far as Canada and the United States, resulting in over 700 deaths worldwide. The last case occurred in 2004. At the time, China was criticized by the WHO for its handling of the epidemic. Ten years after the onset of SARS, the dromedary-camel-related coronavirus, MERS, resulted in 750 deaths in over 27 countries. The Wuhan outbreak's association with a large seafood and animal market, which sells animals for consumption, has led to the possibility of the illness having an animal source. This has resulted in the fear that it would be similar to the previous SARS outbreak, a concern exacerbated by the expectation of a high number of travelers for Chinese New Year, which begins on 25 January 2020.


Wuhan is the seventh-largest city in China, with a population of more than 11 million people. It is a major transportation hub in central China, approximately 700 miles (1,100 km) south of Beijing,[39] 500 miles (800 km) west of Shanghai, and 600 miles (970 km) north of Hong Kong. Direct flights from Wuhan also connect with Europe: six flights weekly to Paris, three weekly to London, and five weekly to Rome.

On 17 January, an Imperial College group in the UK published an estimate that there had been 1,723 cases (95% confidence interval, 427–4,471) with the onset of symptoms by 12 January 2020. This was based on the pattern of the initial spread to Thailand and Japan. They also concluded that "self-sustaining human-to-human transmission should not be ruled out".

What is a coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Coronavirus symptoms:

The viruses can make people sick, usually with a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness, similar to a common cold. Coronavirus symptoms include a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache and maybe a fever, which can last for a couple of days.
For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause a lower, and much more serious, respiratory tracts illness like pneumonia or bronchitis.
There are a handful of human coronaviruses that are known to be deadly.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, also known as the MERS virus, was first reported in the Middle East in 2012 and also causes respiratory problems, but those symptoms are much more severe. Three to four out of every 10 patients infected with MERS died, according to the CDC.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, also known as SARS(Severe acute respiratory syndrome), is the other coronavirus that can cause more severe symptoms. First identified in the Guangdong province in southern China, according to the WHO, it causes respiratory problems but can also cause diarrhea, fatigue, shortness of breath, respiratory distress and kidney failure. Depending on the patient's age, the death rate with SARS ranged from 0-50% of the cases, with older people being the most vulnerable.


How Coronavirus spreads:

Viruses can spread from human contact with animals. Scientists think MERS started in camels, according to the WHO. With SARS, scientists suspected civet cats were to blame.
When it comes to human-to-human transmission of the viruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with the infected person's secretions.
Depending on how virulent the virus is, a cough, sneeze or handshake could cause exposure. The virus can also be transmitted by touching something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes. Caregivers can sometimes be exposed by handling a patient's waste, according to the CDC.

Coronavirus treatment:

There is no specific treatment. Most of the time, symptoms will go away on their own.
Doctors can relieve symptoms by prescribing pain or fever medication. The CDC(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)says a room humidifier or a hot shower can help with a sore throat or cough.Drink plenty of fluids, get rest and sleep as much as possible.
If symptoms feel worse than a standard cold, see your doctor.


How can We prevent Coronaviruses?

There is no vaccine to protect against this family of viruses, at least not yet. Trials for a MERS vaccine are underway.You may be able to reduce your risk of infection by avoiding people who are sick. Try to avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. Wash your hands often with soap and water and for at least 20 seconds.
If you are sick, stay home and avoid crowds and contact with others.
Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze, and disinfect the objects and surfaces you touch.

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